Answer the following questions. Each question response should be at least 1 page, and answer each question fully.
In this session, you learnt a lot about database security. We will focus three topics for this conference: (1) Inference in ordinary databases or statistical databases, (2) database privacy (through encryption), and (3) cloud security. Please pick one of these three topics and explain in your own words what the problem or issue is, how the issue is being addressed and some of the concerns with the solutions being proposed.
In this conference, we will focus on typical attacks in the Internet affecting confidentiality, integrity and availability at various layers: Layer 1: Physical; Layer 2: Link; Layer 3: Network; Layer 4: Transport, and Layer 5: Application. (This is IP Layering; in IP layering, roughly Session, Presentation and Application of the OSI layers are combined into a single Application layer). Pick one layer and describe typical attacks in that layer and the controls that are employed in the layer to minimize the attack or vulnerability that leads to the attack. For example, in the link and network layers, there can be packet sniffing attacks, in the IP (network layer), there could be spoofing attacks, and in various layers, there could be denial of service attacks. Be as specific and as complete as possible and cite your reference materials in your response.