2. How were the ulama educated???What was their relationship to political leadership???What were their social roles???What role did the madrasas play in Islamic culture and civilization?


4. Discuss pre-1500 cultural developments in Spain .??Why was Cordoba a model of civilized culture???What were some distinguishing features of al-Andlua?


6. What were the primary obstacles to stable rule for India’s Muslim invaders and immigrants???How did they deal with them?

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