From education to religion, the use of ethical practice codes is widespread in civil society. Codes of ethics form the bedrock of professional activity in many health care careers.

To prepare for this Discussion, review the three codes of ethics (Hippocratic Oath, American Association of Medical Assistance, and Principles of Medical Ethics: American Medical Association) in “Appendix 1” of the Lewis and Tamparo text. Select one of the codes that best reflects your personal philosophy.

Post, a comprehensive response to the following:


  • Which of the three codes of ethics listed best reflects your personal philosophy? Why?
  • What roles do codes of ethics play in health care?
  • What factors impact your own personal code of ethics?



Assignment: The Tuskegee Syphilis Study-Applying the Four Ethical Principles

What role do ethics play in medical research?

The Tuskegee Syphilis Study is one of the most important landmark cases related to ethics in medical research. It offers chilling insight into why ethics is so critically important to the advancement of medical research and practice.

To prepare for this Application, review this week’s Learning Resources, paying close attention to those related to the four ethical principles and the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. Consider how the four ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence,non-maleficense, and justice can be applied to this historic case.

To complete this Application, write a 1- to 2-page paper that addresses the following:

  • Summarize the Tuskegee Syphilis Study.
  • Identify how each of the four ethical principles can be applied to the case.
  • What are some of the legal and ethical lessons that can be learned from the Syphilis Tuskegee Study?


Your written assignments must follow APA guidelines. Be sure to support your work with specific citations from this week’s Learning Resources and additional scholarly sources as appropriate. Refer to the Essential Guide to APA Style for Walden Students to ensure your in-text citations and reference list are correct.



Judson, K., & Harrison, C. (2016). Law and ethics for the health professions. (7th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

  • Chapter 1, “Introduction to Law and Ethics”
    This chapter sets the stage for your journey by introducing you to the fundamental concepts of law and ethics in health care.
  • Chapter 4, “Law, the Courts, and Contracts”
    Law offers a uniform framework that can be applied to different situations. This chapter shows how the key elements of the law are connected.


Lewis, M. A., & Tamparo, C. D. (2012). Medical law, ethics, and bioethics for the health professions. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis.

  • Chapter 1, “Medical Law, Ethics, and Bioethics”
    This chapter offers a different perspective on presenting the relationship between ethics and law in health care.
  • Appendix I, “Code of Ethics”
    The Hippocratic Oath is probably the most universally recognized medical code of ethics. This appendix presents the Hippocratic Oath and two other examples of medical codes of ethics.

Gillon, R. (1994). Medical ethics: Four principles plus attention to scope. British Medical Journal, 309(6948), 184.

Note: Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.


The four principles of medical ethics present an extremely useful tool for considering complex ethical situation and will for a basis to support your ethical reasoning throughout this course. This article introduces the four principles.

Macklin R. (2003). Applying the four principles. Journal of Medical Ethics, 29(5), 275-280. Retrieved from


This article examines the practical application if the four ethical principles.

Walker, C. (2009). Lest we forget: The Tuskegee experiment. Journal of Theory Construction & Testing, 13(1), 5-6.

Note: Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.


The historic Tuskegee Study presents a chilling example of why medical ethics are so important as well as how law and ethics do not always agree. This article examines the study and its legacy.

Gamble, V. (1997). Under the shadow of Tuskegee: African Americans and health care. American Journal of Public Health, 87(11), 1773-1778.

Note: Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.


This article examines historical and social context of the Tuskegee Study and its impact on the contemporary relationship between African Americans and the biomedical community.

Knowledge of the Tuskegee syphilis study continues to limit participation of blacks in medical research. (2001). AHRQ Research Activities, (249), 20-21.

Note: Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.


This article takes another look at the impact that the Tuskegee Study has had, and continues to have, on the African American communities’ willingness to participate in medical research.

National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention. (2009). The Tuskegee timeline. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website:


A timeline of the infamous Tuskegee Study.

Required Media


Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2010). Ethical and legal issues in healthcare: The relationship between law and ethics. Baltimore: Author.


Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 11 minutes.


Dr. Felicia Cohn and Jack Schwartz discuss what is meant by ethics and law, as well as the relationship between the two. Dr. Nneka Mokwunye considers the role of ethics in clinical practice. Dr. Cohn introduces the four ethical principles.


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